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From zoroastrian civilization to modern society.
Tajikistan is a unique complex of historical, archeological, architectural, town planning and monumental art symbols which reflect deep-rooted trade and economic relations between different nations.
From the very beginning of civilization forming and state system revival Tajikistan had been both a crossing point for trade and economic relations, cultural and national values and a battle field. In spite of its role it managed to preserve its national identity and culture. The history of Tajik people dates back to ancient times, to the very beginning of human civilization. Ancient archeological finds excavated on the territory of present day Tajikistan prove that people inhabited this land as early as the beginning of paleolith. The discovery of the first evidence from the Stone Age in 1956 was a sensation.
Our ancestors were often drawn into cruel wars against their will and suffered from devastating raids of invaders. However, regardless of all their misfortunes ancestors of Tajik people kept adding their achievements to the spiritual treasury of human kind, they developed trade relations with other nations and made their contributions to international cultural exchange.
In V-VII century our ancestors started forming their national identity, Tajik language and culture. In IX century Samanids State with its capital in Bukhara was founded. This state was founded by an outstanding politician of his time and the most famous representative of Samanid dynasty – Ismoil Samani.
Tajik people made a significant contribution to the spiritual treasury of human civilization, they gave the world outstanding scientists, philosophers, writers, poets and architects whose works became an important part of scientific and cultural legacy accumulated by global civilization. Best examples are works of founder of Tajik and Persian literature Abuabdullo Rudaki who is believed to be the first poet of Islam period, immortal national epic poem Shakhname by Abdulkosim Firdousi that conveys legendary history of Persians and Tajiks, and Canon of medical science by Abuali-Ibn-Sino (Avicenna) which for many centuries remained main medical guidance in every Europe’s university. Such scientists Al-Khorezmi, Al-Farabi and Al-Beruni, such stars of world poetry as Omar Khayyam, Rumi, Saadi, Khafiz, Jami, such art masters as Borbad, Mani, Bekhzod were famous way beyond ancient Sogd, Samanids’ state, Khorasan and Mavrennahr (Two-rivers) all of which covered territory of present day Central Asia.
Since the ancient times Tajikistan has been on the crossroads between East and West. It held important position in international trade and cultural exchange connecting lands of Bactria - Takharistan, Sogd, Istravshan and Fergana – with India, Afghanistan, and China.
Despite their difficulty roads over high mountain ranges were the shortest along The Silk Road. Chariots and soldiers of Alexander the Great travelled the road that is now an asphalted highway connecting two ancient Central Asian cities – Samarkand and Penjikent. It appears that he and his warriors were the first Europeans to walk in IV century B.C. along most of the future Silk Road.
The Silk Road was not only a route to trade goods between the East and the West but also to exchange people and ideas. It resulted in a new cultural unit, an amazing mixture which has inherited, to a various degree, both eastern and western traits.
After endless desert sands that even today give part of Turkmenistan its yellow coloring travelers must have viewed the emerald green of Zeravshan Valley as an earthly paradise. This is how they also viewed ancient Sogd with its capital Samarkand and its rival Penjikent - as far as city’s abundance and wealth goes.
Nowadays, in view of developing international trade and cultural cooperation The Silk Road has became a symbol of friendship, understanding and good relations between people living along its path.
The ancient land of Tajikistan bears signs of Alexander the Great invasion, the Kushan state, Arab caliphs, the hordes of Chingiz-Khan and Tamerlane, signs of Renaissance and various cultures and faiths. It lived through many dramatic periods.
The modern period in the history of Tajikistan started with collapse of the Soviet Union. The Republic of Tajikistan claimed its independence in 1991. Its parliament passed a state declaration of independence.
Today Tajikistan is an independent state with a presidential system of government. Tajikistan declared itself a democratic, secular, rule-of-law state. Its highest values are citizen and his life, rights and freedoms.